Institute of Traditional Martial Arts
The University of New Mexico
Andrew Yiannakis, Director
Sport and Gender (#06)
Researched and compiled by:
Carol A. Fletcher, Ph.D.
Updated December 2, 1995, v. 2.0
Acosta, R.V., & Carpenter, L.J. (1987, April). Women in intercollegiate sport: A
longitudinal study - nine-year update: 1977-1986. Paper presented at the American
Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Convention, Las
Acosta, R.V., & Carpenter, L.J. (1994). Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal
study - seventeen year update: 1977-1994. Department of Physical Education,
Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, NY 11210.
Adler, P.A., Kless, S.J. & Adler, P.(July, 1992). Socialization to gender roles:
Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education,
Albert, A.A., & Porter, J. R. (Spring, 1988). Children's gender-role stereotypes: A
sociological investigation of psychological models. Sociological Forum, 3(2),
Allison, M.T. (March, 1991). Role conflict and the female athlete: Preoccupations with
little grounding. Special issue: Gender roles, Sport and exercise. Journal of
Applied Sport Psychology, 3(1), 49-600.
Arena, L. (1989). Survival tactics for the female coach. Coaching Women's Basketball,
Archer, J., & McDonald, M. (September, 1990). Gener Roles and Sports in Adolescent
Girls. Leisure Studies, 9(3) 49-60.
Asher, K. (1993). A sense of dignity: Proactive steps to end sexual harassment in sports.
Coaching WomenOs Basketball, 7(5), 8-9.
Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Baron, D. (1986). Grammer and gender. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Beck, M. (1994). Fairness on the field: Amending Title VII to foster greater female
participation in professional sports. Cardozo-Arts-&-Entertainment-Law-Journal.
Belenky, M., Clinchy, B., Goldberger, N., & Tarule, J. (1986). Women's ways of
knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.
Bem, S.L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-162.
Bem, S.L. (1978). Beyond androgyny: Some presumptuous prescriptions for a liberated
sexual identity. In J. Sherman & F. Denmark (Eds.), Psychology of women:
Future directions for research (pp. 1-23). New York: Psychological Dimensions.
Bem, S.L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing.
Psychological Review, 88, 354-364.
Bem, S.L. (1983). Gender schema theory and its implications for child development:
Raising gender-aschematic children in a gender-schematic society. Signs: Journal of
Women in Culture and Society, 8, 598-616.
Bem, S.L. (1985). Androgyny and gender schema theory: A conceptual and empirical
integration. In T.B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1984:
Psychology and gender (pp. 179-226). Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska
Benson, D.E., & Mullins, E. (Fall, 1990). Consistency of role identity and self-esteem.
National Journal of Sociology, 4(2), 159-173.
Berg, R. (1994, October). A gain of inches: In women's college sports, good news comes
in small packages. Athletic Business (p. 9).
Bernard, J. (1981). The female world. New York: Free Press.
Birke, L.I.A., & Vines, G. (1987). A sporting Chance: The anatomy of destiny.
Women's Studies International Forum, 10, 337-347.
Birrell, S. (Feb, 1992). The woman athlete: Fact or fiction? Paper presented at the
National Girls and Womenin Sport Symposium, Slippery Rock University,
Slippery Rock, PA.
Birrell, S.J. (1988). Discourses on the gender/sport relationship: From women in sport to
gender relations. In K. Pandolf (Ed.), Exercise and sport sciences reviews
(V 16, pp. 459-502). New York: Macmillan.
Birrell, S., & Richter, D. (1987). Is a diamond forever? Feminist transformations of
sport. Women's studies international forum, 10(4), 401.
Blackwood, R.E. (1983). The content of news photos: Roles portrayed by men and
women. Journalism Quarterly, 60(4), 710-714.
Blue, A. (1987) Grace under pressure: The emergence of women in sport. London:
Bonvicini, J. (1993). Getting the job you want: In this age of gender equity, contracts and
job security, enlightened coaches need to learn to negotiate. Coaching Women's
Basketball, 7(4), 28-31.
Boutilier, M.A., & SanGiovanni, L. (1983). The sporting woman. Champaign, IL:
Brawley, L.R., Landers, D.M., Miller, L., & Kearns, K.M.(1979). Sex bias in
evaluating motor performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, 15-24.
Brawley, L.R., Powers, R.C., & Phillips, K.A. (1980). Sex bias in evaluating motor
performance: General or task specific expectancy. Journal of Sport Psychology,
Bridges, J.S. (February, 1989). Sex differences in occupational values. Sex Roles,
Bryant, J. (1980). A two year investigation of the female in sport as reported in the paper
media. Arena Review, 4(2), 32-34.
Broverman, I.K., Vogel, S.R., Broverman, D.M., Clarkson, R.E., & Rosenkrantz, P.S.
(1972). Sex role stereotypes: A current appraisal. Journal of Social Issues, 28, 59-
Burkhauser, R.V., & Duncan, G.J. (March, 1989). Economic risks of gender roles:
Income loss and life events over the life course. Social Science Quarterly,
Burton-Nelson, M. (1991) Are we winning yet? How women are changing sports and
sports are changing women. New York: Random House.
Burton-Nelson, M. (1994). The stronger women get, the more men love football. New
York: Avon Books.
Campbell, K.E., & Lee, B.A. (Winter, 1990). Gender differences in urban neighboring.
Sociological Quarterly, 31(4), 495-512.
Carlson, A. (1992). The athlete's view of gender verification in sports. Paper presented at
the International Athletic Foundation Symposium on Gender Verification for
International Team Physicians. London: May 15-16.
Chin, J. (March, 1992). Gender roles: Social structure or social constraint? Simulation
and Gaming, 23(1), 110-115.
Colker, R., & Widom, C.S. (1980). Correlates of female athletic participation. Sex Roles,
Condry, J., & Dyer, S. (1976). Fear of success: Attribution of cause to the victim. Journal
of Social Issues, 32, 63-83.
Connell, R.W. (1987). Gender and power. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Constantinople, A. (1973). Masculinity-femininity: An exception to a famous dictum?
Psychological Bulletin, 80, 389-407.
Corbin, C.B. (1981). Sex of subject, sex of opponent, and opponent ability as factors
affecting self-confidence in a competitive situation. Journal of Sport Psychology,
Corbin, C.B., Landers, D.M., Feltz, D.L., & Senior,K. (1983). Sex differences in
performance estimates: Female lack of confidence versus male boastfulness.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 54, 407-410.
Corbin, C.B., & Nix, C. (1979). Sex-typing of physical activities and success predictions
of children before and after cross-sex competition. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1,
Corbin, C.B., Stewart, M.J., & Blair,W.O. (1981). Self-confidence and motor
performance of preadolescent boys and girls in different feedback situations.
Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 30-34.
Crandall, V.C. (1969). Sex differences in expectancy of intellectual and academic
reinforcement. In C.P. Smith (Ed.), Achievement-related motives in children
(pp. 11-45). New York: Russell Sage.
Curtis, M., Darley, C., & Grant, C. Gender equity: Demise or reaffirmation. Coaching
Women's Basketball, 9(3), 54-55.
Csizma, K.A., Wittig, A.F., & Schurr, K.T. (1988). Sport stereo-types and gender.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 62-74.
Deaux, K. (1976). Sex: A perspective on the attribution process. In J.H. Harvey, W.J.
Ickes & R.F. Kidd (Eds.), New directions in attribution research, (Vol. 1, pp. 335-
352). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Deaux, K. (1984). From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade's
research on gender. American Psychologist, 39, 105-116.
Deaux, K. (1985). Sex and gender. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 49-81.
Deaux, K., & Farris, D. (1977). Attributing causes for one's own performance: The
effects of sex, norms, and outcome. Journal of Research in Personality, 11, 59-
Deaux, K., & Kite, M.E. (1987). Thinking about gender. In B.B. Hess & M.M. Ferree
(Eds.), Analyzing gender (pp. 92-117). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Deaux, K., & Lewis, L.L. (1984). The structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships
among components and gender label. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 46, 991-1004.
Deaux, K., & Major, B. (1987). Putting gender into context: An interactive model of
gender-related behavior. Psychological Review, 94, 369-389.
Deaux, K., & Taynor, J. (1973). Evaluation of make and female ability: Bias works two
ways. Psychological Reports, 32, 261-262.
Deci, D.L., Betley, G., Kahle, J., Abrams, L., & Porac, J. (1981). When trying to win:
Competition and intrinsic motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,
Del Rey, P., & Sheppard, S. (1981). Relationship of psychological androgyny in female
athletes to self-esteem. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 12, 165-175.
Dewar, A.M. (1987). The social construction of gender in physical education. Women's
Studies International Forum, 10, 453-465.
Duda, J.L. (1986). A cross-cultural analysis of achievement motivation in sport and the
classroom. In L. VanderVelden & J. Humphrey (Eds.), Current selected research
in the psychology and sociology of sport (pp. 115-132). New York AMS Press.
Duda, J.L., & Allison, M.T. (1990). Cross-culture analysis in exercise and sport
psychology: A void in the field. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12,
Duncan, M.C.& Hasbrook, C.A. (1988). Denial of power in televised women's sports.
Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 1-21.
Duncan, M.C., Messner, M., Williams, L., & Jensen, K. (August, 1990). Gender
Stereotyping In televised Sports. The Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los
Duncan, M.C., Messner, M., Williams, L. (January, 1991). Coverage Of Women's
Sports In Four Daily Newspapers. Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles.
Duncan, M.C. & Sayaovong, A. (1990). Photographic images and gender in Sports
Illustrated for Kids. Play & Culture, 3(2), 91-116.
Dyer, G. (1987). Women and television: An overview. In H. Baeher & G. Dyer (Eds.),
Boxed in: Women and television (pp. 6-16). New York: Pandora Press.
Eagley, A.H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation.
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Eagley, A.H., & Kite, M.E. (1987). Are stereotypes of nationalities applied to both
women and men? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 451-462.
Eagley, A.H., & Steffin, V.J. (1986). Gender and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic
review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 309-
Eccles, J.S. (1985). Sex differences in achievement patterns. In T. Sonderegger (Ed.),
Nebraska symposium on motivation. 1984: psychology and gender (pp. 97-132).
Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press.
Eccles, J.S., Adler, T.F., Futterman, R., Goff, S.B., Kaczala, C.M., Meece, J.L., &
Midgley, C. (1983). Expectations, Values, and academic behaviors. In J. Spence
(Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives (pp.75-146). San Francisco:
Eccles, J.S., & Harold, R.D. (1991). Gender differences in sport involvement: applying
the Eccles' expectance-value model. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 3, 7-
Eitzen, D.S. & Baca Zinn, M. (1989). The de-athleticization of women: The naming and
gender marking of collegiate sport teams. Sociology of Sport Journal, 6, 362-370.
Felshin, J. (1974). The social view. In E.W. Gerber, J. Felshin, P. Berlin, & W. Wyrick
(Eds.), The American woman in sport (pp. 179-279). Reading, MA: Addison-
Feltz, D.L. (1988). Self-Confidence and sports performance. In K. Pandolf (Ed.),
Exercise and sport sciences reviews (Vol. 16, pp. 423-457). New York:
Frable, D.E.S. (1989). Sex typing and gender ideology: Two facets of an individual's
gender psychology that go together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
French, M. (1992). The war against women. New York: Summitt Books.
Friedman, E., & Ber, B.G. (March, 1991). Influence of gender, masculinity, and
femininity on the effectiveness of three stress reduction techniques: Jogging,
relaxation response, and group interaction, Special issue: Gender Roles, Sport,
and Exercise. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 3(1), 61-86.
Frodi, A., Macauley, J., & Thome, P.R. (1977). Are women always less aggressive than
men? A review of the experimental literature. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 638-660.
Gemmill, G., & Schaible, L.Z. (May, 1991). The psycho-dynammics of female/male
role differentiation within small groups. Small-Group Research, 22(2), 220-239.
Gill, D.L. (1986). Competitiveness among females and males in physical activity classes.
Sex Roles, 15, 233-247.
Gill, D.L., (1988). Gender differences in competitive orientation and sport participation.
International Journal of Sport Psychology, 19, 145-159.
Gill, D.L., & Deeter, T.E. (1988). Development of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 59, 191-202.
Gill, D.L., & Dzewaltowski, D.A. (1988), Competitive orientations among intercollegiate
athletes: Is winning the only thing? The Sport Psychologist, 2, 212-221.
Gill, D.L., Dzewaltowski, D.A., & Deeter, T.E. (1988). The relationship of
competitiveness and achievement orientation to participation in sport and nonsport
activities. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 139-150.
Gill, D.L., Gross, J.B., Huddleston, S., & Shifflett, B. (1984). Sex differences in
achievement cognitions and performance in competition. Research Quarterly for
Exercise and Sport, 10, 340-346.
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goldberg, P. (1968). Are women prejudiced against women? Transaction, 5, 28-30.
Gorman, C. (1992). Sizing Up The Sexes. Time.
Grant, C. & Curtis, M. (1993). Judical action regarding gender equity. Unpublished
manuscript (University of Iowa).
Green, H. (1986). Fit for America: Health, fitness, sport, and American society. New
York: Pantheon Books.
Greendorfer, S.L. (1987). Gender bias in theoretical perspectives: The case of female
socialization into sport. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11, 327-340.
Griffin, P.S. (1973). What's a nice girl like you doing in a profession like this? Quest, 19,
Grimmell, D., & Stern, G.S. (November, 1992). The relationship between gender role
ideals and psychological well-being. Sex Roles, 27(9-10), 487-497.
Guttmann, A. (1991). WomenOs sports: A history. New York: Columbia University
Hall, M. (1979). Women and the Lawrentian wrestle. Arena Review, 25-32.
Hall, M.A. (1988). The discourse of gender and sport: From femininity to feminism.
Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 330-340.
Hanlon, T. (1990). Strategies for returning women to coaching. Coaching Women's
Basketball, 3(4), 12-17.
Harris, C.T., & Earle, J.R. (November, 1986). Gender and work values: Survey
findings from a working class sample. Sex Roles, 15(9-10), 487-494.
Harris, D.V., & Jenning, S.E. (1977). Self-perceptions of female distance runners. Annals
of the New York Academy of Sciences, 301, 808-815.
Hasbrook, C.A. (1988, August). Female coaches - Why the declining numbers and
? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 59(6) pp. 59- 63.
Hatfield, E., & Rapson,R.L. (Sprin-Summer, 1987). Gender differences in love and
intimacy: The fanatasy vs the reality. Journal of Social Work and Human
Sexuality, 5(2), 15-26.
Helmreich, R.L., & Spence, J.T. (1978). The Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire:
An objective instrument to assess components of achievement motivation and
attitudes toward family and career. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology,
Helmreich, R.L., & Spence, J.T. (1977). Sex roles and achievement. In R.W. Christina &
D.M. Landers (Eds.), Psychology of motor behavior and sport - 1976 (Vol. 2, pp.
33-46). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Helmreich, R.L., Spence, J.T., & Holohan, C.K. (1979). Psychological androgyny and
sex role flexibility: A test of two hypotheses. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 37, 1631-1644.
Henderson, K.A., Stalnaker, D. & Taylor, G. (1988). The relationship between barriers to
recreation and gender-role personality traits for women. Journal of Leisure
Research, 20, 157-176.
Horner, M.S. (1972). Toward an understanding of achievement-related conflicts in
women. Journal of Social Issues, 28,157-176.
Hyde, J.S., & Linn, M.C. (Eds.) (1986). The psychology of gender: Advances through
meta-analysis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Inman, K. (1987). Too little too late: Sport's Illustrated's role in the growth and
development of women's athletics. Unpublished paper. University of Texas.
Jacklin, C.N. (1989). Female and male: Issues of gender. American Psychologist, 44,
Jackson, L.A., Sullivan, L.A., & Rostker, R. (October, 1988). Gender, gender role, and
body image. Sex Roles, 19(7-8), 429-443.
Kahn, L. (1991). Discrimination in professional sports: A survey of the literature.
Industrial and Labor Relations. Review, 44, 395-418.
Kahrs, Dr. Karol, & Levick, C. (1993). A salary dialogue. Coaching Women's
Basketball. 8(1), 36-37.
Kane, M.J. (1989). The post Title IX femal athlete in the media: Things are changing, but
how much? Joperd, 60(3), 58-62.
Kane, M.J., & Snyder, E. (1989). Sport typing: the social "containment" of women.
Arena Review, 13, 77-96.
Kerkhoff, B. (1994). Kansas gives women's basketball coach equitable pay base.
Coaching Women's Basketball, 8(5), 10.
Knoppers, A., Bedker, B,, Ewing, M., & Forrest, L. (Sept, 1989). The structure of
athletic obstacles to women's involvvement in coaching. Paper presented at the
annual forum of the Council of Collegiate Women's Athletic Administrators,
Kosofky, S. (1993). Toward gender equality in professional sports. Hastings-Women's
Law-Journal, 4, 209-247.
Koss, M.P., & Gaines, J.A. (1993). The prediction of sexual aggression by alcohol use,
athletic participation, and fraternity affiliation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,
Kroger, J., & Haslett, S.J. (1991). A comparison of ego identity status transition
pathways and change roles across five identity domains. International Journal
of Aging and Human Development, 32(4), 303-330.
Leavy, J. (1975). Sports chic. WomenSports, 4(3), 53-57.
Lehr, C. (1995). Division I and II salary survey results show menOs coaches still favored.
Coaching Women's Basketball, 9(3), 39-40.
Lenhart, V. (1995). Division II salary survey results. Coaching WomenOs Basketball,
Lenney, E. (1977). Women's self-confidence in achievement settings. Psychological
Bulletin, 84, 1-13.
Lenney, E., Browning, C., & Mitchell, L. (1980). What you don't know can hurt you:
The effects of performance criteria ambiguity on sex differences in self-confidence.
Journal of Personality, 48, 306-322.
Lenskyj, H. (1986). Out of bounds: Women, sport, and sexuality. Toronto: Women's
Lipman-Blumen, J. (Spring, 1992). Connective leadership: Female leadership styles in
the 21st century workplace. Special issue: Women in the workplace: Toward
true integration. Sociological Perspectives, 35(1), 183-203.
Locksley, A., & Colten, M.E. (1979). Psychological androgyny: A case of mistaken
identity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1017-1031.
Lopiano, D. (1995). The exit of a dinosaur culture. Coaching Women's Basketball,
Luebke, B.F. (1989). Out of focus: Images of women and men in newspaper
photographs. Sex Roles, 20(3-4), 121-133.
Lumpkin, A.. & Williams, L. (1991). An analysis of Sports Illustrated featured articles
1954-1987. Sociology of Sport Journal (in press).
Maccoby, E., & Jacklin, C. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA:
Stanford University Press.
Matteo, S. (1986). the effect of sex and gender-schematic processing on sport
participation. Sex Roles, 15, 417-432.
Matteo, S. (1988). The effect of gender-schematic processing on decisions about sex-
inappropriate sport behavior. Sex Roles, 18, 41-58.
McElroy, M.A., & Willis, J.D. (1979). Women and the achievement conflict in sport: A
preliminary study. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, 241-247.
Messner, M.A. (1987). The life of a man's seasons: Male identity in the life course of the
jock. In M.S. Kimmel (Ed.), Changing men: New directions in research on men
and masculinity (pp. 53-67). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Messner, M.A. (1988). Sports and male domination: The female athlete as contested
ideological terrain. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5(3), 197-211.
Messner, M.A. (1989). Masculinities and athletic careers. Gender & Society, 3(1),
Messner, M.A. (1990, forthcoming). When bodies are weapons: Masculinity and
Violence in Sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 90(3).
Messner, M.A., & Sabo, D.F. (1990). Sport, man, and the gender order. Chempaign, IL:
Messner, M.A. (1992). Power at play: Sports and the problem of masculinity. Boston:
Metheny, E. (1965). Connotations of movement in sport and dance. Dubuque, IA:
William C. Brown.
Miller Brewing Company. (1983). The Miller Lite report on American attitudes toward
sports. Milwaukee, WI: Author.
Miller, S.H. (1975) The content of news photos: Women's and men's roles. Journalism
Quarterly 52(1), 70-75.
Myers, A.E., & Lips, H.M. (1978). Participation in competitive amateur sports as a
function of psychological androgyny.Sex Roles, 4, 571-578.
NCAA gender equity study. (1992). Overland Park: Kansas.
Nelson, M.O. (December, 1991). Another look at masculine protest. Individual
Psychology, 47(4), 490-497.
Ostrow, A.C. (1981). Age grading: Implications for physical activity participation among
older adults. Quest, 33, 112-123.
Ostrow, A.C., Jones, D.C., & Spiker, D.A. (1981). Age role expectations and sex role
expectations for selected sport activities. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,
Parkhouse, B.L., & Williams, J.M. (1986). Differential effects of sex and status on
evaluation of coaching ability. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 57, 53-
Pedhazur, R.J., &Tetenbaum, T.J. (1979). BSRI: A theoretical and methodological
critique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 996-1016.
Petruzzello, S.J., & Corben, C.B. (1988). The effects of performance feedback on female
self-confidence. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 174-183.
Pheterson, G.I., Kiesler, S.B., & Goldberg, P.A. (1971). Evaluation of the performance
of women as a function of their sex, achievement, and personal history. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 19, 114-118.
Pollard, W.R. (1989). Gender stereotypes and gender roles in cross-cultural education:
The cultural assimilator. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13(1),
Quackenbush, R.L. (October, 1987). Sex roles and Social perception. Human Relations,
Reid, L.N. & Soley, L.C. (1979) Sports Illustrated's coverage of women in sports.
Journalism Quarterly, 56(4), 861-853.
Rintala, J. & Birrell, S. (1984). Fair treatment for the active female: A content analysis of
Young Athlete magazine. Sociology of Sport Journal, 3(3), 231-250.
Roberts, G.C. (1984). Toward a new theory of motivation in sport: The role of perceived
ability. In J.M. Silva & R.S. Weinberg (Eds.), Psychological foundations of sport
(pp. 214-228). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Rosenkrantz, P., Vogel, S., Bee, H., Broverman, I., & Broverman, D.M. (1968). Sex-
role stereotypes and self-concepts in college students. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 32, 286-295.
Sabo, D.F., & Runfola, R. (1980). Jock: Sports and male identity. Englewook Cliffs, NJ:
Sabo, D., & Snyder, M. (1993). Miller Lite Report on sports and fitness in the lives of
working women. In cooperation with thewomenOs Sports Foundation and
Schacht, S. (1992). The sadomasochistic ritual of male rugby plaayers and the social
construction of gender hierarchies. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the
North American Society for the Sociology of Sport. Toledo, OH.
Scher, M., Canon, H.J., & Stevens, M.A. (Summer, 1988). New perspectives on
masculinity in the college environment. New Directions for Student Services,
Selby, R., & Lewko, J. (1976). Children's attitudes toward females' participation in
sports. Research Quarterly, 47, 453-463.
Selkow, P. (October, 1985). Male/Female differences in mathematical ability: A function
of biological sex or perceived gender role? Psychological Reports, 57(2), 551-
Sherif, C.W. (1972). Females and the competitive process. In D.Harris (Ed.), Women and
sport: A national research conference (pp. 115-139). University Park, PA:
Pennsylvania State University.
Sherif, C.W. (1976). The social context of competition, In D. Landers (Ed.), Social
problems in athletics, (pp. 18-36). Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Sherif, C.W. (1982). Needed concepts in the study of gender identity. Psychology of
Women Quarterly, 6, 375-398.
Skitka, L.J., & Maslach, C. (February, 1990). Gender roles and the categorization of
gender-relevent behavior. Sex Roles, 22(3-4), 133-150.
Smith, P.J. (1991). An exploration of gender issues and their relevance to the
perceptions of primary school children. Early Childhood Developmment and Care.
Snell, W.E., Belk, S.S., & Hawkins, R.C. (1990). Cognitive beliefs about male
sexuality: The impact of gender roles and counselor perspectives. Journal of
Rational Emotive and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 8(4), 249-265.
Spence, J.T., & Hemreich, R.L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity. Austin, TX:
University of Texas Press.
Spence, J.T., & Hemreich, R.L. (1980). Masculine instrumentality and feminine
expressiveness: Their relationships with sex role attitudes and behaviors.
Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5, 147-163.
Spence, J.T., & Helmreich, R.L. (1983). Achievement-related motives and behaviors. In
J.T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and Achievement motives: Psychological and
sociological approaches (pp. 7-74). San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
Spence, J.T., Helmreich, R.L. & Stapp, J. (1974). The Personlaity Attributes
Questionnaire: A measure of sex role stereotypes and masculinity-femininity. JSAS
Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 4, 127.
Stangor, C., & Ruble, D.N. (Winter, 1987). Development of gender role knowledge
and gender constancy. New Directions for Child Development, 38, 5-22.
Stark, L.P. (May, 1991). Traditional gender role Bbeliefs and individual outcomes: An
exploratory analysis. Sex-Roles, 24(9-10), 639-650.
Stein, A.H. Pohly, S.R., & Mueller, E. (1971). The influence of masculine, feminine, and
neutral tasks on children's achievement behavior, expectancies of success, and
attainment values. Child Development, 42, 195-207.
Steinem, G. (1992). Revolution from within. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Stewart, M.J., & Corbin, C.B. (1988). Feedback dependence among low confidence
preadolescent boys and girls.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 59, 160-164.
Stockard, J., Van de Kragt, A.J.C., & Dodge, P.J. (June, 1988). Gender roles and
behavior in social dilemmas: Are there sex differences in cooperation and in its
justification? Social Psychology Quarterly, 51(2), 154-163.
Taylor, M.C., & Hall, J.A. (1982). Psychological androgyny: Theories, methods, and
conclusions. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 347-366.
Taylor, M.T., & Mardle, G.D. (November, 1986). Pupils' attitudes towards gender
roles. Educational Research, 28(3), 202-209.
Theberge, N. (1987). Sport and women's empowerment. Women's Studies International
Forum, 10, 387-393.
Theberge, N. & Cronk, A. (1984). Work routines in newspaper sports departments and
the coverage of womenOs sports. Sociology of Sport Journal, 3(3), 195-203.
Tresemer, D.W. (1977). Fear of success. New York: Plenum.
Twin, S. (1979). Out of the bleachers: Writings on women and sport. New York:
The Feminist Press.
Voelz, C. (1992). Gender equity: The broader picture. Coaching Women's Basketball,
Wallston, B.S., & O'Leary, V.E. (1981). Sex and gender make a difference: The
differential perceptions of women and men. Review of Personality and Social
Psychology, 2, 9-41.
Weinberg, R.S., & Jackson, A. (1979). Competition and extrinsic rewards: Effect on
intrinsic motivation. Research Quarterly, 50, 494-502.
Weinberg, R.S., & Ragan, J. (1979). Effects of Competition, success/failure, and sex on
intrinsic motivation. Research Quarterly, 50, 503-510.
Weinberg, R.S., Reveles, M., & Jackson, A. (1984). Attitudes of male and female athletes
toward male and female coaches. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10,
Wiley, M.G. (Winter, 1992). Gender, work, and stress: The potential impact of role-
identity salience and committment. Sociological Quarterly, 32(4), 495-510.
Wilkgren, S. (1988). Legal options available to coaches treated unfairly. Coaching
Women's Basketball, 1(6), 9-10.
Willits, F.K., & Frunk, R.B. (1989). Prior college experience and attitude change
during the middle years: A panel study, International Journal of Aging and
Human Development, 29(4), 283-300.
Wollum, J. (1992). Outstanding women athletes. Phoenix: Oryx Press.
Women's Sports Foundation (1987). Preliminary study of the media's coverage of
Wong, G., & Barr, C. (1995). Pay attention: Athletic administrators [and coaches] need
to understand equal pay issues. Coaching Women's Basketball, 9(12), 20-21.
Wrisberg, C.A., Draper, M.V., & Everett, J.J. (1988). Sex role orientations of male and
female collegiate athletes from selected individual and team sports. Sex Roles, 19,