European Society For The Scientific Study of Judo (ESSSJ)

For information contact: Michel Brousse 11 Avenue Tourrelles de Charlin 33700 MERIGNAC FRANCE References provided by Michel Brousse (#02)

Foreword by Brian Goodger Kodokan judo has undergone many striking changes since its foundation by Jigoro Kano over a century ago. These changes themselves give much material for study for those interested in judo from a historical or a social-scientific point of view, while the emergence of judo as a modern Olympic sport in turns provides interesting areas for physiological and medical study, on the lines of that undertaken in a range of other contemporary sports. The formation of the European Society for the Scientific Study of Judo is thus of great importance. These bibliographical notes, the first fruits of the Society's existence, are evidence that significant scientific work is being undertaken in relation to judo, while the formation of the Society itself provides an important platform for further developments. When my brother and I began research into judo in the early 1970s, it was all too easy to feel rather isolated in this work; for example there seemed to be virtually no existing literature in our particular area, the sociology of judo. These bibliographical notes show that students of judo can now attach themselves to a growing body of research and study, and even an "insular Briton" has no excuse for feeling isolated. With 1992 and its attendant possibilities approaching rapidly, such joint European developments can only be beneficial. Projects such as the ESSSJ do not simply "happen", however, they need a great deal of hard work to bring then into being. In this respect I feel a debt of gratitude to Michel Brousse, for this commitment for the setting up of the Society. The process of communicating with him over the past few years has been very stimulating and fruitful for me and has made me appreciate the great benefits that come from institutions such as the ESSSJ. I am thus most pleased to see here the first concrete results of this enterprise. FRANCE Albertini Pierre, "Pour une Pratique et une Pedagogie de l'Opposition Codifiee", ["Codified Opposition: Pedagogics and Practice"], Judo nÝ 59, 1983, Decembre, 37-39 pp. The author studies the judo learning process. He points out the inadequacy of the classical means and stresses the need of taking into account the reality of the fight situation. The judo player is no longer seen as an individual but as a member of a couple. He proposes to build the learning process on the exploring and mastering of the forces developed by the two players. From that point of view he sketches extreme levels (beginner and top player) in mat work and in standing judo. Albertini Pierre, "Pour une Pratique et une Pedagogie de l'Opposition Codifiee", ["Codified Opposition: Pedagogics and Practice"], Judo nÝ 61, 1984, Mars-Avril, 41-44 pp. In the second part of his paper, the author uses mat work to illustrate his approach. Trying to codify opposition and to develop steps from a partner to an opponent, he describes new situational exercises with specific tasks meant to guide the improvement of the judo learner. Badreau Jacques, "Combat: Construction d'un Contenu en Judo", ["Combat Sports: How to Plan Basic Judo Teaching"], EPS, 1986, juillet-octobre, nÝ 200-201, 51-53 pp. In order to promote an in-school judo teaching method not only based on judo games but on real improvements, the author presents various situations suitable to beginners in high schools, and easy to be run by the physical education teacher who is not a judo specialist. Each situation is analysed in its objectives, movement instructions, contents,... Badreau Jacques, "Combat Sports: How to Plan Basic Judo Teaching", ["Combat: Construction d'un Contenu en Judo"], EPS, 1986, Novembre-Decembre, nÝ 202, 43-45 pp. In the second part of his paper, the author follows his demonstration with new movement tasks. Barrault D., Poortmans J., Leclercq R., "Comparaison de la Fonction Renale chez les Judoka lors d'un Exercice Maximal sur Ergocycle et lors d'Entrainements de Judo", ["Comparison of Renal Function in Judoka during Normal Exercise and Training"], Sciences et Sport, nÝ 2, 1987, pp.119-125. Twelve male judoka have been investigated on a bicycle ergometer by stepwise exercise up to exhaustion. Thereafter, they were submitted to one hour of specific training for judo under two different conditions (nage waza and ne waza). Blood and urine samples were collected prior to and after each event. Maximal oxygen uptake is equivalent to athletes with polyvalent physical fitness. During exhaustive exercise, there has been a moderate involvement of lactate production and hematocrite while postexercise proteinuria and albuminuria lead to the conclusion of a transient renal impairment. On the other hand, judo training sessions did not involve 1actic metabolism to any appreciable extent. There is a signicative difference between these two values showing that ne waza training is more intensive than nage komi training. Moreover, the renal function during these two sessions was not disturbed as far as the excretion of protein is concerned. There has been no difference between the training sessions with or without falls. This proves that the falls in judo have no consequence on albuminuria, proteinuria or on the kidney physiology. Brousse Michel, "La Performance en Judo, Etude de ['Aspect Technique", ["Judo Performance, a Study of Technical Aspects"], STAPS, nÝ 13, 1986, Mai, 7-12 pp. Anton Geesink's victories, the abandon of the single weight class, new contest rules with the introduction of koka and yuko are important dates in modern judo. The Olympics, Soviet Union contestants, new training methods have influenced the technical side of the performance. Judo techniques and contest regulations have evolved closely and influenced one another. Factorial analysis allows the author to point out the relationship between throws and advantages which tends to prove that some judo techniques, related to high advantages, have to be performed when preparing contests in a different way from others linked with koka and yuko; thus the need for another approach, more oriented to timing and opportunity rather than to the execution itself; besides a specific defense can also be developed from it. This illustrates the importance of the tactical dimension in modern judo. Brousse Michel, "Du Samurai a 1'Athlete: 1'Essor du Judo en France", ["From Samurai to Athlete: the Evolution of Judo in France"], Sport-Histoire, Revue Internationale des Sports et des Jeux, Toulouse, Privat, nÝ 3, 1989, pp. 11-25. The author examines the process of westernisation and modernisation of judo through the increasing role of organised contest. Apparently paradoxical in original judo, competition reveals itself as a decisive developing factor and involves real changes in the philosophy of the discipline. One of the main examples is the introduction of the colour belt system which from Great-Britain to France then spread world-wide. This shift from "perfection" to "progress" is seen as the first criterion of the westernisation of Kano's method. France played a prominent role in the internationally organised post World War II judo. Drifting away from its origins, contest-oriented judo became gradually acculturated, "perverted". After being a samurai, the modern judoka has moved into an athlete. Brousse Miche1, "Reflexions sur 1'Evolution de 1'Enseignement du Judo en France", ["Considerations on the Evo1ution of the Teaching of Judo in France"], Bulletin de l'Academie de Judo Michigami, nÝ 13, 15 Mai 1989, 3-7 pp. The author points out the link between the signification of judo and its cultural and economic dimensions and discusses the different definitions of the practice according to the evolution of the society. The westernisation of judo influenced the relation to knowledge, the way it is transmitted and the values related to a discipline deflected from its origins by the guest countries and the predominance of the contest orientation. Judo teachers have definitely not the same background, the same experience. Kano's original judo is to the judo of the fifties what the latter is to today's French judo, a far-off reference. Bui-Xuan Gilles, "Essai d'Interpretation Psycho-Sociologique de 1'Evolution du Judo et de ses Pratiquants", ["Toward a Psycho-Sociological Analysis of the Evolution of Judo and Judo Players"], Anthropologie des Techniques du Corps, Actes du Colloque Organise par la Revue STAPS, Paris, STAPS, mars 1984, 291-306 pp. In this paper the author studies the imaginary roots of judo. He sets apart judoka according to their feelings toward grappling or throwing and develops a socio-psychoanalytic approach of the motivations that underlie judo practice. Calmet Michel, Gouriot Marcel, Didactique Judo en Milieu Scolaire, [In-school Judo Didactics], Centre de Documentation Pedagogique de l'Oise, s.1., 1987,40 p. The authors present "markers" to analyse and organize in- school judo teaching. Their non specific approach differs from the classic one and is more related to loose styles of wrestling although it explores the standards of the judo techniques. This booklet offers an acculturated and pedagogical form of judo to physical education teachers in order to establish a connection between schools and judo clubs. Clement Jean-Paul, "L'Itineraire du Judo dans la Societe Francaise (1936-1970)", ["Judo Itinerary in French Society(1936-1970)"], STAPS, Dossier nÝ1, novembre 1987, 129- 144 pp. The author studies the evolution of judo and physical education in the French society between 1936 and 1970. He comments upon some of the sociological characteristics of the judo players during that period, and stresses the ambiguous relations between P.E. and judo which seems to be explained more by social and economical causes plus corporatist attitudes than by different ideologies. FFJDA, collectif, Le Judo des 15-17Ans, Pratique et Entrainement. [Youngsters' Judo (15/17): Practice and Training], FFJDA, Paris, 1985, 181 p. This book presents an innovating process of teaching judo to the 15 year-olds to the 17 year-olds. It introduces new concepts like autonomy, responsibility and a "covenant" between the judo learner and his teacher. A better understanding of judo and the pursuit of efficiency per se are the key points of that work which offers rich didactical analyses. The main characteristic of that book is the central part given to the young judo player, taking into account his abilities, motivations, ... Written by experienced judo players and physical education specialists, this book presents a new approach in judo teaching. Majean Hubert, Gaillat Lionel, "Etude de l'Acide Lactique Sanguin chez le Judoka en Fonction des Methodes d'Entrainement", ["A Study of Blood Lactic Acid in the Judo Player According to His Training Methods"], Medecine du Sport, nÝ 4, 1986, 194-197 pp. A physiological approach of the efforts made during a judo contest has been made possible by laboratory methods. Blood lactic acid rates show that anaerobic glycolysis is extremely solicited in judo contest. When used during training sessions, lactic acid measurement is an efficient programming tool that could help the trainer to quantify work intensity. Therme Pierre, Raufast Andre, "Le Symbolisme dans le Champ des Activites Physiques et Sportives", ["Symbolism in the Field of Physical Activities and Sports"], Recherche en Activites Physiques et Sportives, Actes des Joumees de la Recherche enAPS. Aix-Marseille II, Maseille, 1985, 75-88 pp. A clinical and psychological approach to combat sports practiced by groups of psychotic and parapsychotic children has allowed the authors to build up, since 1975, a considerable bank of clinical observations. While it is true that the behaviour of many children remains psychotic, whatever the surrounding context, the clinical facts allow them to observe the evolution of certain "cases" and the occurrence of a certain relief from psychosis. The present stage of the theoretical reflection, based on practical study, as well as a specific methodology developed from a long and difficult experience have led to indicate certain significant correlations between the manner in which these evolutive cases take possession of the combat area and their psychological evolution. Thus, the theoretical interest of the study consists, firstly in the analysis of the spatial discourse, a body language. For the group of cases studied, they observe regular links between, on one hand, the passage from one specific spatial-motor structure to another, and, on the other hand the progressive construction of an identity. At present, this research aims to construct a model of successive stages in spatial-motor constructions and the concomitant modifications in mental activities. Trilles Francis, Etude des Interactions Judoka-Tatami, Optimisation du Compromis Performance-Protection et Problematique d'une Normalisation, [Judoka-Tatami Interactions, Best Compromise Between Performance and Protection, Standardization], These de l'Universite de Poitiers, 1987, 463 p. A tatami must offer "protection and performance" to the judo athletes. The author has studied the importance of tatami in judo related traumatology. His methodology involves mechanical, technical and medical analyses. Various criteria are taken into account from measured mechanical characteristics and statistical data processing. This work led to the definition of a French norm (AFNOR S 52-307, Juin 1988) for judo tatami. Great Britain Goodger B. C., Goodger J. M., "Judo in the Light of Theory and Sociological Research", Intemational Review of Sport Sociology, Vol. 2 (12), 1977, 5-34 pp. Since the second world war judo has undergone a rapid transformation from a small-scale, esoteric, Japanese "martial way" to a large-scale, modern, international sport with changes in organisational scale and complexity, and in the nature of the legitimation of authority. These changes have profoundly affected judo training cultures and processes of cultural transmission. Goodger B. C., Goodger J. M., "Organisational and Cultural Change in Post-War British Judo", International Review of Sport Sociology, Vol. 1 (15), 1980, 21-48 pp. This paper examines changes in the macro-institutional and micro-social contexts in British judo since the second world war. In particular, growth in scale, westernisation, international competition and the application of scientific approaches to training have led to a more individualistic and less cohesive and morally distinctive training culture, and to changes in the individual player's experience of judo. Goodger B. C., "Sociology of Sports: Some Implications from Instruction in Judo", Focus on Learning, USA, nÝ 7, 1, 1980, 30-38 pp. The paper examines the relevance of concepts developed in the study of educational transmission (for example "classification" and "framing") to instruction in judo and relationships between "judo knowledge" and "nonjudo knowledge". A case-study of conflicting legitimacy-claims in judo is also presented. Goodger J. M., "Judo Players as a Gnostic Sect", Religion, nÝ 12, 1980, 333-344 pp. This paper suggests that the post-war judo movement in Britain (up to about 1960) had the character of agnostic sect, that is a select group with special enlightenment, pursuing self-perfection. The body of teaching was distinctive and esoteric, but provided insights for everyday life; enlightenment was assumed to unfold gradually, the leader of the movement was assumed to possess exceptional powers. Goodger B. C., The Development of Judo in Britain: a Sociological study. Ph. D. Thesis of the University of London, 1981, 442 p. This study examines the original social context of Kodokan judo and that of its initial establishment in Britain in the 1920s. It then focuses on judo in Britain since 1945, looking at its organisation, relations with Japan, approaches to training, contests and teaching, and on the development of rules and refereeing. In conclusion then developments are examined in the light of themes in the original conception of Kodokan judo. Goodger J. M., Judo, a Changing Culture, Ph. D. Thesis of the University of London, 1981,470p. This study examines the "core training culture" in British judo. Taking a sample of high-ranking judoka over the period from the 1930s to the mid 1970s, changes in the following areas are examined: orientations to the body and physical capacities, orientations to the social order, and social affiliations and relationships. The culture of the pre-war period is characterised as that of a "society", that of the early post-war period as a "sect" and that of the 1960s and early 1970s as a "sport". Goodger J. M., "Theories of Change in Sport: Comments on Some Recent Discussions", International Review of Sport Sociology, nÝ 3 (1), 1982, 99-109 pp. This paper examines relationships between individual sports and the wider social structure, in particular looking at the social composition in sports, processes through which social composition may change, and relationships between changes in social composition and changes in the symbolic systems, beliefs and practices of individual sports. judo in Britain between the 1920s and the 1970s is used to illustrate these points, and they are set in the context of a critical examination of recent contributions to the sociology of sport. Goodger J. M., "Directions for Leisure Research: a Critique of the Radical View", Quest, 1983, 12-20 pp. This paper first describes the radical view of leisure research, which puts a considerable stress on class, class conflict and class domination in examining leisure groups and changes in leisure. It then goes on to a critique of this view and to an alternative approach, referring to configurational and multi-factor approaches and suggests that analysis should examine the nature of satisfactions derived by participants. Judo is used to illustrate these points. Goodger J. M., "Pluralism, Transmission and Change in Sport", Quest, nÝ 38 (2), 1986, 135-147 pp. This paper first takes up the approaches of Marx, Durkheim and Weber to the process of industrialisation. It then suggests that pluralism is a central feature of modern industrial societies, and one which may influence processes of cultural transmission and change. An examination of approaches to cultural transmission is followed by a case-study of post-war British judo, illustrating processes of cultural transmission and change. Goodger, J. M., "Ritual, Solidarity and Sport", Acta Sociologica, nÝ 29 (3), 1986, 219 224 pp. Ritual is seen as a form of expression through which identities and values of sports groups may be sustained. Certain features of the division of labour, notably specialisation, diversity and individualism, may weaken the shared cultural context on which ritual depends. However, "bonds of similitude" generated by sports groups may limit the impact of these processes, the intense and shared experience of sports activities, and associated values and identities, tending to generate shared cultural contexts and ritual within them. Judo is used to illustrate these processes. ITALY Beraldo S., Monti A., Preparazione Atletica nel Judo Femminile, [Physical Training in Judo for Women], Ed. FILPJ, Roma, 1985, 125 p. A rich collection of physical training exercises and an interesting psychological and technical approach to judo training for women. Beraldo S., Polletti C., 17 Libro della Prepatazione Fisica, [Physical Training Book], Ed. Mediterranee, Roma, 1988, 205 p. The authors, starting from auxology and functional anatomy show different methodologies and a lot of exercises to improve human skill. Other arguments: training programmation, physical preparation with and without weights, principles of alimentation for sports with weight categories; and a special chapter on weightlifting completes this book. Betti Berutto T., Da Cintura Bianca a Cintura Nera, [From White to Black Belt], Ed. Spada, Roma, 1987 [1956], 810 p. The oldest and most complete Italian judo book (10 editions from l986). The author, a man who loves judo, writes about classic judo: techniques, kata, bushido, ancient and modern Japan and more information about different martial arts: karate, aikido, kendo, kyudo, kung fu, ... Capelletti F., Zucchelli F., Judo Terzo Livello, [Third Level Judo], Ed. FILPJ, Roma, 1987, 130 p. (Plus a video tape). Judo for top level athletes divided in two parties: Technical part (movements, displacements, kumi kata, renraku, kaeshi, ... ) Training part (exercises to improve muscular strength). Cappelli P. P., Judo Cuida Tecnica per Regazzi, [Judo for Children], Ed. FILPJ, Roma, 1987, 88 p. Little booklet which explains the classic Japanese judo bases for children, this very clearly. Carmeni B., Judo per Tutti, [Judo for Everybody], Ed. G.B., Roma, 1988, 294 p. A pocket encyclopedia dealing with judo history, ceremonials, positions, gymnastics, body movements, break falls, kata, throwing and grappling principles, ... Sacripanti A., "Note Biomeccaniche su Ude Hishigi Juji Gatame", ["Biomechanical Remarks on Ude Hishigi Juji Gatame"], Athlon, nÝ 8, 1985, p. 29-31. Physical and physiological study on ude hishigi juji gatame in order to achieve a more technical effectiveness and a better refereeing. Sacripanti A., "Lo Squilibrio Statico in Judo", ["Statistical Unbalance in Judo"], Athlon, nÝ 5-6, 1987, pp. 42-44. A physical study on kuzushi, its historical development and a more correct Biomechanical definition for a better understanding. Sacripanti A., "Biomechanical Classification of Judo Throwing Techniques (Nage waza), VÝ International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sports, Athens, 1987, translation in Scuola cello Sport, Rivista di Cultura Sportiva, nÝ 10, 1987, pp. 56-61. Deep study on the use of forces in space in static and dynamic conditions, determination of two basic physical principles of judo throwing techniques, new classification of 77 judo throws and identification of "fundamentals". Sacripanti A., "La Biomeccanica del Judo", ["Biomechanics and Judo"], Sapere, nÝ 8-9, 1988, pp. 57-66. Historical development of biomechanics from 1680, its application in sports and main results of biomechanics studies in judo, wrestling and weigh/lifting. Sacripanti A., Biomeccanica del Judo, [Judo Biomechanics,], Ed. Mediterranee, Roma, 1989,205p. The first complete book on judo biomechanics divided in three parts: Physics, Biomechanics, Judo. This book explains not how but why it is possible to apply judo techniques; deep study on judo bases, teaching methodologies, classifications, training, competition. Sozzi G., Impariamo il Judo, [Learning Judo], Ed. FILPJ, Roma, 1988, 35 p. Very interesting judo cartoon guide for children (6Ý edition) Sozzi G., Insegnamo il Judo, [Teaching Judo], Ed. FILPJ Athlon, Roma, 1988, 63 p. Very clever, full photographic guide, for a modern teaching methodology of judo bases for children and amateurs. POLAND Dabrosawa A., Bartosiewicz G., Gajewski J., Jaszczuk J., Wit A., A Method for Determining Judaka Physical Features during Training Process, Institute of sport, Warsaw, Poland. The physical features of judoka were expressed by means of the following parameters: maximum isometric torques of ten muscle groups; dynamic parameters of lower extremities and trunk, evaluated from measurement of reactionforce on the force plate during counter-movement jump; muscle tremor factors. The tested group consisted of young athletes who achieved first success in this discipline and championships from national judo team. Until now isometric torques were measured several times during the training cycle and their values were useful for planning training loads. A criterion of selection for young athletes on the basis of results of measurements of this feature was formulated. Test on the force plateform is nonspecific for this sport and was not applied for control of training process. The results of tremor parameters evaluation seem to be interesting but this method still requires testing. Markowska L., Mickiewicz G., Wojczak J., Sikorski W., Liwski G., Posnik J., "Activity of Sympatho-Adrenal System in Athletes during a Year's Training Cycle", Biology of Sport, nÝ Vol. 4, nÝ 3/4,, 1987. The purpose of this study was to analyse activity of the sympatho-adrenal system in athletes during an annual training cycle. Ten judo players were studied during two identical preparation periods and six kayakers during two different periods of the training cycle. Investigations carried out on the same athletes/kayakers have shown that: 1) during the competition period the resting urinary catecholamine /NA and A/ excretion was significantly lower than during the general period of preparation /p<0,01 and p<0,05, respectively/; 2) during the competition period post-exercise urinary NA and A excretion was also significantly lower. Investigations carried out during the same periods of the annual training cycle /judo/ have shown no significant differences in resting and post-exercise catecholamine excretions. Mickiewicz G., The Laboratory Tests Applied for Determination of Work Capacity in Judo, Institute of sport, Warsaw. The aim of this study was to compare the laboratory tests applied for evaluation of work capacity of the Polish national judo team athletes during 1981-198S. Comparatives studies were made on ten judoka. Six laboratory tests were applied: 1) test for estimation of the maximal oxygen uptake /VO2max/ 2) Pulsative endurance test 3) 5 min. test 4) Repeated anaerobic test 5) 30 sec. anaerobic test performed with the lower extremities 6) 30 sec. anaerobic test performed with the upper extremities. The following parameters were determined during the tests: parameters of gas exchange /VO2, VE, %O2, RQ/; heart rate /HRI, maximum values and 3 min. after termination for the exercise; lactic acid /L`/ concentration parameters of blood acid-base equilibrium /BE, pH/ in the 3rd and 30th min. after exercise; maximum power; time of attainment and maintenance of maximum power. The work output in the tests was also calculated. The comparative analysis was made using the method of Scheffe simultaneous comparisons. Further, interrelationship between the tests was evaluated on the basis of linear correlation coefficients. The analysis has shown the pulsative endurance test, 5 min. test and the 30 sec. anaerobic upper-extremities test to be of the highest diagnostic value for determination of work capacity in judo. Sikorski W., Mickiewicz G., Laksa Cz., Majle B., Contest Structure and Work Capacity of a Judo Competitor, Institute of sport, Warsaw. The main purpose of this research was to characterize a judo contest with regard to technical structure, duration of sequences of work and breaks during the contest as well as work capacity of a judo competitor. Identification of a judo contest from technical and tactical viewpoint has been made on the basis of observation of all the contests in three consecutive world championships, three European and Po1ish championships. Physiological research has been carried out on 164 competitors during international tournaments and Po1ish championships in line with estimation of a judoka work capacity by means of measurement of lactic acid concentration and parameters of acid-base equilibrium in blood. The observations and research have elucidated that a judo contest consists of short sequences of work no longer than 30 sec., between which are intervals, in 80% shorter than 10 sec. Such intermittent work demands from judo competitor great efficiency of anaerobic lactate capacity which has been manifested in high concentration of lactic acid and high acidosis of blood after the contests. Analysis of observations have shown gradual increase of effective attacks till the third minute of the contests, lower number in the fourth and great increase in the last minute of fights. The medalists of the world and European championships attacked efficiently more often than others but the va1ues of their attacks was identical. They also received most points for pena1ising opponents and most frequently performed seoi nage, uchi mate and other waza. European Society for the Scientific Study of Judo PORTUGAL de Almada F., Rocha A., Roquette J, Lopes H., "A Importancia da Relagao da Posigao Centro de Massa-Base de Apoio nos Desportos de Combate", ["The Importance of the Relative Position of the Gravity Center and Stability Stance in Fighting Sports", Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, CDI-ISEF, 1989. In judo one can move or take action against one's partner in function of the relation of one's center of gravity as well as of his support basis (if one considers the fact that during a fight or even a championship there is no significant alteration in factors such as weight, height, strength, etc., ... ) In this article are analysed the consequences of the relative position of the center of gravity in the practice of judo and other fighting sports (such as fencing, karate, boxing, ... ). The differences of the distances between fighters are compared. de Almada Fernando, Judo Analise Mecanica das Tecnicas de Projeccao do Gokio, [Analysis of Gokio Throwing Technics in Judo], Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, CDI-ISEF, 1980, 119 p. In this book the author intends to account for the mechanical elements of the throwing techniques of gokio, in order to allow a functional analysis of these techniques. He tries to give the "feeling" of the first phase of each throw as it develops. In judo, techniques are not "pattern solutions". According to the spirit that made Jigoro Kano compile them, the gokio techniques form a set of problems covering a wide range of different situations that allow whoever masters them the necessary capacities to face any new problem that may rise. In a western culture using generally analysis/synthesis processes, every part is just the extension of the whole so the solutions are accordingly conditioned. In an eastern culture used to globalizing and based on analogical structures, every part of the whole is just the extension of the whole so there is no such problem. For those who have some knowledge of physics, mechanics and better still biomechanics, it will be easy, at least theoretically, to determine the conditions of maximum rentability based on our own data. de Almada Fernando," Desportos de Combate", ["Combat Sports"], Ludens, Vol. 8, nÝ 3, June 1983. The author attempts to define the concept of combat sport taking into account the characteristics of their cultural origins (either oriental or occidental) and analyses the implications (importance and weight of the traditions, difficulties of adaptation, transformations undergone. He presents the hypothesis that this sort of practice could represent an answer to his prospective view. de Almada Fernando, O Conceito de Esquema Mental como Paradigma Base de uma Concepcuo Estruturalista, [The Concept of Mental Scheme as the Basis Paradigm of a Structuralist Conception], Ph D Thesis in Human Motricity, Sports Organization and Training, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, CDI-ISEF, 1987, 272 p. Mental schemes are presented as the basis paradigm of man's functional structure. They represent a human dimension constituted by reasoning power modules which act as formulas facilitating the answers of the modules already elaborated but limiting a perception of possibilities of an alternative choice. Taking into consideration that mental schemes of the man observed and those of the observer tend to maintain themselves, we can relate cultures, sciences, personal perspectives simple words, etc., once that has been made possible to consider the relationship between the mental schemes of the object (man)/ the signal the observer (another man). The research was conducted with a theoretical approach in the field of the knowledge of the nervous system and an experimental research considering variables as cardiac frequency, skin electric resistance and time of answering. The author considers the use of this concept in the understanding, the improving and the developing of judo. de Almada Fernando, Judo Analise MecaAnica das Tecnicas de Projeccao do Gokio, [Analysis of Gokio Throwing Technics in Judo], Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, CDI-ISEF, 1989. The aim of the management during the practice is usually to imitate what has been accepted as the ideal situation. However since one is constantly dealing with an infinite number of variables and not with constant values, these practice models can be seen as a more useful type of tool since they allow a sportsman to develop faster and further. In judo the gokio technics were used as a model long before they even became accepted as standards throughout Europe. The identification of the model's variables and of their indicators leads to yet another form of preparation for the judo instructors and the judoka thus enhancing their work even further. Therefore, using the basis of the book "Analysis of Gokio Throwing Technics in Judo", we prepared posters and analysed each judo technic so that, even without specific preparation, people may come to understand why they function the way they do and subsequently how they function. Martins T., Roquette J. Carvalho L., "Estudo Ecocardiografica do Coracao dos Judokas", "An Echocardiographic Study of the Judoka's Heart: Morphological Characteristics"], Motricidade Humana, CDI-ISEF, Vol. 4, nÝ 1, 1988. As we have been puzzled by references in a text describing the striking similarities between the morphology of the judoka's heart and people affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, we have decided to evaluate by means of echocardiography, a population of Portuguese judoka whom we compared to a control group of sedentaries. We analysed the occurring changes in the dimensions of cardiac chambers, wall thickness, myocardial mass and left ventricular function. Our study shows that judo practice induces morphological alterations in the judoka's heart but those changes are not followed by the depression of the systolic function of the left ventricle. Echocardiography seems to be an excellent method in the evaluation of the effects of judo on the heart. Rocha, Maria Amalia, "Analise de Algumas Variaveis no De Ashi Barai, de Acordo com uma Metodologio da Actividade Motora", ["Analysis of Some Variables of De Ashi Barai, According to a Methodology of Motor Activity"], Lisboa, December 1987. Poster showed at the AIESEP World conference. Due to the need of: -personalizing training in relation to the different practice conditions, -identifying the factors which enable us to understand a practical situation as accurately as possible, taking into account the time in which the answers have to be given throughout the training, we suggest the utilisation of a methodology which consists of: carrying out a diagnosis on the analysis of the form; programming and executing the activity in such a way so as to answer the hypothesis raised and in order to control the development of the action. As an example, we present the study of a throwing technique, the De Ashi Barai, and try to identify some of its variables, define the factors affecting its evolution and identify the indicators which enable us to control it. Roquette Joao, "Estudio Morfologico do Judokas Portugues em Differentes Categorias de Peso", ["A Morphological Study of Portuguese Judoka in Different Weight Categories''l.Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, CDI-ISEF, 1988. The purpose of this study was to compare the morphology of Portuguese judoka by assessment of the somatotype characteristics, body composition estimates and proportionality profiles. These results indicate that the components of somatotype are similar in all categories. In relation to the body composition we found significant differences of adiposity in two categories (-65 kg and -86 kg). In general the judoka tend to be more endomesomorphic in upper weight categories than in the lower ones. Roquette Joao, "Analise Comparativa Entre Duas Tecnicas de Projeccao no Judo", ["Comparative Analysis Between Two Throwing Technics of Judo."], Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, CDI-ISEF, 1988. We made a comparative analysis of two throwing technics (goshi-uchi-mata and ashi-uchi-mata), by the study of some mechanic variables: classes of forces involved and uke's body flight paths. These two motor skills seem to have different mechanical structures taking into account the following factors: timing for application of forces in uke's body, direction of forces and flight paths. Serpa Sidonio, "Psychological Training and Control for the Competition, Sophrological help in Judo", EJU Congress, Pamplona, May 1988. The objective of the competition is based on getting the highest efficiency in a confrontation between individuals at the top of their possibilities. Top sportsmen are usually under the pressure of the continual requirement of success. In this competitive world, the differences between the athletes are marked by the psychological influences on their physical and technical potentialities. In this work are reviewed the positive psychological characteristics of a judo player (concentration, aggressiveness, spirit of sacrifice,... ) as opposed to negative factors such as timidity and fear. Sophrology includes strategies to adapt the individual to a concrete situation through mental training techniques. The bases, methodology and sophrological techniques in judo, are presented here according to the 1987 Serpa model. SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES Denmark Bonde Hans, Judo den Milde Vej, [Judo, the Gentle Way], Borgen, Kobenhavn, 1989, 200 p. This books deals with the philosophy, history and technique of judo. Judo is analysed both within its traditional framework of zenbuddhistic self-development and as a modern competitive sport. Among other things, the book describes how Danish judo emerged as a part of the Danish resistance movement during the German occupation of Denmark. Another central theme is the morality of judo. Judo is not seen as morally good per se, as it is often being taken for granted in Japanese texts on martial arts, but judo is basically analysed as a specific scheme of movement which can be used for both destructive and constructive ends. The role of judo in a militaristic Japan during the 1930's and the 40's shows the destructive capacity of judo. Norway Andreassen Hans Petter, Introduisdonskurs i Judo, Oslo, Norges Judo Forbund, 1979, 16 p. Elementary course in judo. Norges Judo Forbund,HaugerSkolevie 1,N-1351 Rud. Andreassen Hans Petter, Judo: Grundiurs i Kampregler, Studichefte, Oslo, Norges Judo Forbund, 1983, 24 p. The Norwegian judo federation basic course in judo combat rules. Giertsen J. Chr. Jr., Aktivitetslederkurs i Judo, Bergen, Private ea., 25 p. Elementary course for judo instn~ctors. Hodne Dag, Hodnes Budo Statistikk NÝ I Norges Ranking 1969-76, NÝ 2 Norges Ranking 1977-1984, Norges Dan Graderte, Private ed. Dan Hodne, Munkerudvollen 19 a, Oslo 11. Kaarbo Rolf, Rapport om D0dsulylken Fredag den 30 Januar 1970, Del. 1, Oslo Studentenes Idrettslag, 19 p. Report on death accident in Oslo, 30/01/1970, part 1. Morell-Jensen Morten, Skader i Norsk Judo pa Konkurranseniva, Oslo, Private ea., 17 p. Injuries in Norwegian judo sport on a competition level. Norges Judo Forbund, Trener 1: Judo, Aktivitetslederkurs Oslo, Norges Judo Forbund, 1981, 58 p. A plan for basic judo teaching by he Norwegian judo federation. Otterbeck Geir, Treningsprogram for Gretslagsmedlemmer I Hordaland Judokrets, Bergen, 1980, 35 p. Training scheme for members of the judo team in Hordaland prefecture. Otterbeck Geir, Hvordan Skal Vi Kunne Skape et Slagiraftif; Norsk Judo Landslag ? Oppgave til Topptrenerseminaret i Bergen 1981, Bergen, 1981, 28 p. How to create a vigorous Norwegian judo team. Otterbeck Geir, Egentrening for Toppidrettsut0vere i Judo, Bergen, Norges Judo Forbund, 1982, 17 p. Self-training for high level judoka. Salling Kjell, Biblio~raphical Notes on Some Scientif c Works About Judo and JiuJitsu,Sarpsborg, Private ea., 1983, 28 p. Very interesting collection of American, English, German and French works published outside the specific judo magazines (approximately 400 references). Schumacher Anne, Hjertnes Hilde, Praksisrapport fra Prosjoktarbeid ved Ris Skolei, Oslo, Private ea., 1981, 29 p. In-school judo. Report on practice at Ris school in Oslo. Stromme Bard, Instraksdon av Nybe~ynnere Of~ Viderekomme-Ungdom, Trenerveiledningmed Timeoversilt. Norks Jiu-Jitsu og Judo Klubb,Os10, 1981, lOO p. Important Norwegian work on judo: basic instructions, guidance for instructors. SWEDEN Ahlstrom Roland,.EMG-Analysis JudospeciRkt: Jamforande Studie Mellan tva Olika Kasttraningssmodeller, Stockholm, 1985, 23 p. A comparative study of two different models for throwing practice. Forsberg Stig, Judotreninfg for "Avvikande" Barn, [Judo Training for "Deviant" Children], Private ea., 1972, 9 p. Some questions to parents of deviant children about their development as a result of judo training. Stig Forsberg, M01ndalsbacken 24, 12430 Bandhagen, Sweden. Geels Antoon, Judo Metodik, Grundprinciper, Eget F0rlag, Helsinborg, 1975, 176 p. Judo method and basic principles.. Geels Antoon, Judo Gulvteknik av "Opa" Schutte, [Ne-Waza by "Opa" Schutte], Plus Ultra, Helsinborg, 1979, 157 p. In this book about ne-waza the author includes Dutch and European judo history. Gustafsson Jan-Olof, Energilravsanalys av Judo, Schantz, Stockholm, 1978, 38 p. Demand of energy in judo. 0hman Gerth, Budo Fysiologi,, [Budo Physiology], Private ea., 0rnsk01dsvik, 1977, 37 p. Budo Fysiologi,, [Budo Physiology], Private ea., 0rnsk01dsvik, 1978, 25 p. 0hman Girth, Budofysiologi, Box 107, 89101 0rnsk01dsvik, Sweden SPAIN Aragones Mayte, "Cineanthropometry in Judo Player", EJU Congress, Pamplona, May 1988. Cineanthropometry studies shape, size, body composition and the proportions of the athlete with the aim of analysing all the factors which can increase the efficiency. The morphological composition of a judo player (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy) is obtained through the somatotype according to the HeathCarter method. The body composition's study which divides the athlete's weight in fat, muscular, osseous and residual, is based on Drinkwater's technic. In this work, are presented the average values of somatotype and body composition in the 1988 Spanish championships medalists in comparison with the Olympic medalists of Montrea1 76. In the study of the proportions are compared all the body measurements through the "phantom", unisex, symmetrical and bilateral model. In the same way is defined the proportionally standard of a top player. Modrego A., Aragones M., Ceberio F., "Somatotype and Body Composition, Study on the Medalists of the 1986 Spanish Judo Championships", Arch. Med. Dep., 1987. Modrego Alberto, "Most Frequent Skeletal Muscles Sports Injuries in Judo", in International Congress in Sportsmedecine of Euskadi, San Sebastian, 1984. Rodriguez, "Aggressiveness and Competitive judo", EJU Congress, Pamplona, May 1988. The search for the optimal efficiency in training and competition may produce psychic and physic lacks of balance which obstruct the natural development of the activib. The use of a psychological approach is very important in sports, above all, on sportsmen's physics and psychic reactions before, during and after the game. There are decisive factors in competitive judo which intervene in the behaviour of players (concentration, self-control, anticipation, ... ) and emphasize the differences between athletes with a similar physical and technical level. These factors become stronger through psychological techniques In this way, different theories about aggressiveness in judo are presented here. The way of using the body and mental force by attack and defense techniques increase self-control. Sagredo, "Differential Aspects in Feminine Judo", EJU Congress, Pamplona, May 1988. This study offers first a sociological introduction on the historic evolution of feminine sports. Then values the importance of differential psychology in sports practice. The female skeleton presents important differences, for example, her short and cylindrical pelvis. Body fat generally settles on the hips, thighs and abdomen as a consequence of the action of estrogens. Sportswomen have 15-20% whereas 25% are found in other females. There is a lesser absolute and relative amount in muscular distribution though the proportion of quick and slow fibers is similar in both sexes. Woman presents between 55 and 85% of the man's force, due to the lesser muscular surface and arm leverage. The effect of aerobic training are similar in both sexes though there is a lesser oxygen contribution in women. There are no differences on the anaerobic resistance and women seem to be better adapted to humidity, have a lesser risk of dehydration and more apt to lose heat. Zakarian, 'Hand and Wrist in Judo", EJU Congress, Pamplona, May 1988. Both of them are exposed to a great number of trauma because they are the basis of the movements in this sport. The factors which produce the chronic and acute pathology of these injuries are studied in this work: acute pathology: ligament injuries on fingers, phalanges fractures, breaking tendons and injuries on soft parts. On the wrist: sprains, scaphoid fractures, tenotivitis and canalar syndromes, chronic pathology, distal interphalangic arthrosis, wrist arthrosis, thumb arthrosis and finger deformations. Zakarian, "Spine Pathology in Judo", EJU Congress, Pamplona, May 1988. Judo is a contact sport in which there are many intense extra load situations over the spine. To study these injuries, physiopathology, values sport biomechanics, physiologica1 factors and other things such as the intensity of the practice and the starting age, checking the pre-existing pathological situation. The acute orthopedic surgery and the common chronic microtraumatisms are studied in each vertebral segment (cervical, dorsal and lumbar). Some preventive recommendations about the judo practice are showed in this work and it is thought that the main problem is in the prepuberal development period of the teenagers. May 1989